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FDG PET/CT, metastasis, PET/CT, renal cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) is a highly aggressive form of dedifferentiated renal cell carcinoma. We report a 62-yearold man who presented with respiratory symptoms and a lung mass on chest computed tomography (CT). The patient underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and was found to have extensive metastatic disease. Based on the history and imaging findings, there were possible primary malignancies, including bronchogenic carcinoma, melanoma, or an aggressive lymphoma. An excisional biopsy surprisingly revealed a high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma with no evidence of differentiation, and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies showed that the tumor cells were positive for markers of genitourinary origin (PAX-8 and vimentin). The histologic and IHC results, along with multiple FDG-avid exophytic lesions in both kidneys, were considered diagnostic of sRCC. Here we have highlighted the potential role of 18F-FDG-PET-CT in patients with sRCC, discussed the diagnostic challenges, and presented a brief review.